About Shmuel

Inventor, Computer Scientist, Serial Entrepreneur, Best-Selling Novelist and Rabbi all rolled into one. Rabbi Veffer’s breadth of experience in and his clear articulate delivery make complex ideas seem simple. He brings the world, and world events into focus through the lens of Torah. He has spoken around the world for the past 20 years, from Cambridge University, to the Old City of Jerusalem. He has combined his mathematical and scientific background with his Torah knowledge to deliver seminars throughout North America. He has been interviewed by National Public Radio and has been featured in the New York Times, the National Post and Mishpacha Magazine. Shmuel Veffer is the author, under his pseudonym Charles Samuel, of the best selling novel, "The Jerusalem Conspiracy" and "Missiles, Masks and Miracles," the incredible true story of the first Gulf War.

What’s in a Name anyway?

Shmuel teaching Torah

Shmuel Teaching Torah

This week’s Torah portion, Vaera (Exodus 6:2-9:35)  begins in a very confusing way…

וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹקים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אֲנִי יְקוָק׃

And God (ELO-HIM) spoke to Moses and said to him, “I am YHVH“.

Did you catch that? God, whom the Torah calls ELO-HIM, is speaking to Moses, and telling Moses that He, ELO-HIM is YHVH (the four letter name for God – which many Jews articulate as HaShem).!!!

So is God’s name Elo-him, or YHVH?

The very next verse, in God’s attempt to clarify things only adds to the confusion…

וְאֵרָא אֶל־אַבְרָהָם אֶל־יִצְחָק וְאֶל־יַעֲקֹב בְּקל שַׁקי וּשְׁמִי יְקוָק לֹא נוֹדַעְתִּי לָהֶםוָ

And I appeared to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as El Shad-dai, but I did not make Myself known to them by My name YHVH.

So, in the first TWO verses, we have THREE names for God! And as the Torah portion progresses it gets even more confusing.

Aren’t the Jewish People supposed to teach the world about Monotheism, and that there is only ONE true God? Why so many names?

To clear this up, I gave a private webinar on this topic a couple of years ago with source sheets.

It’s worth watching again if you want to understand this week’s Torah portion and all the different names for God.

With blessings from the Galilee!

PS. If you have any questions or comments, please leave a comment below. I love hearing from you!

Rabbi Shmuel Veffer
Founder, Galilee Green

“My Son, My Firstborn… is Israel!”

This week’s Torah portion begins the book of Exodus (Shemot)

Shmuel teaching Torah

Shmuel Teaching Torah

The book of Genesis details the beginnings of the Family of Israel.

In Exodus, we will be forged into the Nation of Israel, after passing through the iron furnace of Egyptian slavery.

At the “burning bush” the Almighty reaches out to Moshe and explains to him how he will be the one to stand up to Pharaoh and lead the Children of Israel out of Egypt…receive the Torah at Horeb (Mount Sinai) and then bring them to the promised Land of Israel to become a Nation.

But it is not to be just any nation… it is to be the “firstborn” of Nations.

When Pharaoh Refuses…

God tells Moshe, that when he returns to Egypt and performs all the signs and wonders in front of Pharaoh, God will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and he won’t release the People of Israel (Ex. 4:21).

When that happens, God instructs Moshe…

“And you will say to Pharaoh, ‘thus says HaShem, “My son, My Firstborn is Israel”‘ :

Send My Son, that he may serve Me, but since you have refused to send him, behold I will kill your son, your firstborn!

What does it mean to be a “Firstborn?”

We learned that Jacob bought the “Firstborn” rights from his brother Esau (and the blessings that went along with it). At this point it seems that God is not only ratifying that Jacob is officially Isaac’s firstborn, but Jacob, as Israel is actually God’s Firstborn!

King David and HarpThe firstborn son is assumed to take on the responsibility for leading the family (becoming King) when the father passes away. What does it mean to be the Almighty’s Firstborn when God is Eternal?

The Firstborn is actually an intermediary between the Father and the younger siblings. The firstborn explains to the younger siblings, in language they can understand, what the Father has communicated to the Firstborn son about how to live life.

Israel as Firstborn

As firstborn, Israel is to be a Kingdom of Priests (Ex.19:6), serving their “Father” in the Temple in Jerusalem.

Secondly, it is our obligation as firstborn to teach the Nations of the World (the younger siblings) what God has revealed to us in His Torah that applies to the Nations in language they can understand.

The sooner both Israel and the Nations understand this symbiotic relationship between us, the sooner we will be on our way to world peace.

With blessings from the Galilee!

Rabbi Shmuel Veffer
Founder, Galilee Green

Moses was a “Jew”!

In this week’s Torah Portion (Exodus), there a quite a few references to “Hebrews.”

Moses is called a Hebrew child by Pharoah’s daughter (Ex. 2:6)
God of the Hebrews (Ex. 5:3)

It’s obvious that the text is referring to the enslaved Tribes of Israel when it uses the term Hebrew.

Aramaic Translation

What’s fascinating is that Onkelos translates the word ‘Hebrew’ into Aramaic as Jew (יהודאי).

I always tell people that when I speak in English, I refer to the Jewish People, and translate that into Hebrew as Am Yisrael – The Nation of Israel. I almost never use “Jew” when I am talking about the Jewish People in Hebrew.

Onkelos lived in the first century of the common era and came from a Noble Roman Family. He converted to Judaism and created the first translation/commentary of the Torah into Aramaic which was the language of the marketplace at the time. (In addition to Greek).

The Nations of the World Call Us Jews – We call ourselves Israel

When speaking the language of the Romans in his translation, he called the Nation of Israel what the Romans called them…. Judeans. (Jude.. Jew)

This obviously was not a description of tribal affiliation (the Tribe of Judah) but a name used to describe the Nation.

(Note: Moses is described as a “Jew” even though he came from the Tribe of Levi)

New Israeli Government – Same old Anti-Israel Hyperbole from the world

This week Prime Minister Netanyahu’s new government was finally installed.

As we’ve mentioned, it is a Right-Wing/Religious coalition which is opposed to many policies of the succession of progressive, leftist governments who have slowly made “democratic values” more important than “Jewish values” in the Jewish State.

Similar in a way to the MAGA – America First movement in the USA, the coalition partners represent a “Jewish First” movement in Israel. I guess you could call it MIJA – Make Israel Jewish Again.

A Jewish Leader visits the Holiest Jewish Site

Itamar Ben Gvir, currently National Security Minister is the “poster boy” of this worldview.

This week he took “provocative step” of visiting the Temple Mount. Which proved to be quite quiet and uneventful.

Not sure why a Jewish Minister in a Jewish State visiting a Jewish Holy Site should be controversial.

But immediately before and after there were international cries of “the sky will fall, the sky will fall!”

What Trump Showed Us

When President Trump was considering moving the US Embassy to Jerusalem, he was bombarded by the same shrill voices predicting chaos in the Middle East, an Arab War against Israel or even worse. (Many of the same voices complaining about Ben Gvir’s visit this week.

Trump called their bluff, and instead leading to disaster his “peace through strength” strategy led to helping negotiate the Abraham Accords between Israel and many of Israel’s former enemies.

Here is Ben Gvir’s statement while on the Temple Mount:

“The Israeli government won’t capitulate to a murderous organization, to a repugnant terrorist group,” Ben Gvir said in the course of his visit, referring to Hamas threats. “The Temple Mount is the most important place for the people of Israel. The Temple Mount is open to all — Muslims, Christians and, yes, Jews too. Jews too. There won’t be racist discrimination in a government in which I am a member. Jews will ascend to the Temple Mount.”

“We maintain freedom of movement for Muslims and Christians, but Jews also go up to the site, and those who make threats must be dealt with with an iron fist,” the minister added at the conclusion of his visit, which reportedly lasted some 15 minutes and passed without immediate incident.

Note that he is not demanding that only Jews be allowed on the site. He is pointing out the absurdity of Jews being treated with less rights than Muslims and Christians when it comes to visiting a Jewish Holy site in the Jewish State.

I understand why Hamas are against Jews praying on the Temple Mount (They want the entire State of Israel, like in Gaza, Judenrein). But why is so much of the ‘enlightened’ non-Jewish world up in arms?

Expect the Obstacles

The Gaon of Vilna teaches in Kol HaTor, that as we approach the final redemption, the spiritual forces that want the descendants of Esav and Yishmael to take the firstborn rights from Israel will rise up to try to stop us from advancing toward our Jewish National destiny.

There will be stumbling blocks along the way, but eventually the spiritual forces of Joseph and David will overpower them.

Therefore warns the Gaon,

“God forbid that we retreat when difficulties arise or when an obstacle appears to prevent us from continuing to work. On the contrary, we must trust that out of that obstacle, help will come to Jacob, and from the straits we will reach the breadth [abundance] of Divine help” (Kol HaTor 1:20)

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Rabbi Shmuel Veffer
Founder, Galilee Green


Why does Jacob bless his grandsons first?

Blessing of Ephraim & Menashe

Vayechi (Genesis 47:28-50:26)
Guest Post by Shraga Simmons

Jacob, realizing he is about to die, gathers his 12 sons to receive a blessing.

But first, Jacob calls upon two of his grandchildren – Joseph’s sons Ephraim and Menashe – to receive blessings. Why would Jacob place priority on blessing grandchildren over children?

As every grandparent knows, the joy of having grandchildren in some respects exceeds the joy of having children is. Why is this so?

Most creatures in the world have parent-child relationships – whether a mother lion protecting her cubs or a mother bird feeding her young. But human beings have a concept of grandchildren, of perpetuation beyond a single generation. Being a grandparent connects us to our unique spiritual soul which is rooted in infinity.

Sibling Peace

There is further significance to Jacob’s blessings.

One of the most beautiful customs in Jewish life is for parents to bless their children at the start of the Friday night Shabbat meal. Girls receive the blessing: “May God make you like the matriarchs Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah.” Boys, meanwhile, are blessed “to be like Ephraim and Menashe.”

What happened to the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob? Why are Ephraim and Menashe instead the subjects of this important tradition?

Ephraim and Menashe were the first set of Jewish brothers who did not fight. Abraham’s two sons – Isaac and Ishmael – could not get along, and their disagreement forms the basis of the Arab-Israeli conflict until today. The next generation – Isaac’s twin sons, Jacob and Esav – were so contentious that Esav repeatedly sought to kill Jacob and instructed his descendants to do the same. The next generation was contentious as well: Jacob’s sons sold Joseph into slavery.

Ephraim and Menashe represent a break from this pattern. This explains why Jacob purposely switched his hands, blessing the younger Ephraim before the older Menashe. Jacob wished to emphasize the point that with these siblings, there is no rivalry. (see Genesis 48:13-14)

Indeed, there is no greater blessing than peace among siblings. The words of King David ring true: “How good and pleasant is it for brothers to sit peacefully together” – Hiney ma tov u’ma’nayim, shevet achim gam yachad (Psalms 133:1).

It is with this thought that parents bless their children today.

Diaspora Difficulties

Rabbi Shimshon Raphael Hirsch (19th century Germany) offers another explanation of why Jewish boys throughout the ages have received the blessing of Ephraim and Menashe:

The first generations of Jews – Abraham, Isaac and Jacob – raised their children primarily in the Land of Israel. The Holy Land is the most hospitable Jewish environment, where the Talmud reports that “even the air makes you wise.” In one sense, being Jewish in Israel is easy.

But due to famine, Jacob and his family moved to Egypt. The next generation would grow up surrounded by pagan immorality. The challenge was if Judaism would survive in the midst of all the distractions of diaspora life.

Throughout the ages, Jewish parents have prayed that their children withstand the temptations of exile, and keep a strong, proud Jewish identity.

It is not an easy task.

In the end, how does a parent gauge success?

Far more than children, it is grandchildren who reveal the foundation and future direction of a family line. Hence the popular saying among Jews: “The issue is not whether you have Jewish children, it’s whether you have Jewish grandchildren.”

What was the outcome with Ephraim and Menashe? Despite great odds, they grew up in Egypt and maintained adherence to Torah ideals and practice. Which is why we bless our sons to be like them, expressing our hope for proud Jewish children – and grandchildren.

Here’s the original article at aish.com

Joseph Revealing Himself to His Brothers

This week’s Torah portion, VaYigash (Gen. 44:18-47-27) is one of the most dramatic in the entire Torah.

After having been rejected and sold into slavery in Egypt by his own brothers, Joseph rose to be the viceroy.

When famine struck Canaan and Egypt the brothers were forced to descend to Egypt to buy some food.

Joseph recognized them, but the brothers did not recognize Joseph.

Joseph Chooses not to Reveal Himself

Rather than reveal himself immediately, he recognized God’s divine providence and understood that this was an opportunity to unite the 12 Tribes as one family again. To do so, the brothers had to recognize their error and repent by repairing their mistake (doing teshuva).

Maimonides in his book the Mishna Torah – Teshuva 2:1 explains what complete repentance (teshuva) really means.

[Who has reached] complete Teshuvah? A person who confronts the same situation in which he sinned when he has the potential to commit [the sin again], and, nevertheless, abstains and does not commit it because of his Teshuvah alone and not because of fear or a lack of strength.

In order to help the brothers do complete Teshuva, Joseph concocted a scenario whereby he would demand that the brothers separate Binyamin from his father Jacob and bring him to Egypt.

Binyamin was the only son left from Jacob’s beloved wife Rachel after Joseph was taken from him.

When the brothers sold Joseph, they thought they were doing the right thing by separating him from the family as was done with Yishmael and Esav. However, they didn’t properly take into consideration that by doing so, they could have killed their own father through heartbreak.

Judah Rises to the Occasion

This time, when confronted with the same situation of sending one of Rachel’s sons to Egypt, Judah stood up and said to the Viceroy of Egypt (Joseph).

Therefore, please let [me Judah] your servant remain as a slave to my lord [here in Egypt] instead of the boy [Binyamin], and let the boy go back with his brothers [to my father in Canaan].

For how can I go back to my father unless the boy is with me? Let me not be witness to the woe that would overtake my father!”

This selfless and heroic act of Teshuva – Repentance in defense of his brother and father Israel ultimately earned Judah the right of Kingship of Israel.

Joseph would remain the paradigm of Kingship of the nation in Diaspora… and Judah would be the King in the Land of Israel. Eventually David from the tribe of Judah would establish the dynasty who would lead the 12 tribes in Israel.

Joseph and Judah Separate Again

When Joshua led the Nation into the Land, the Tribes were united under one leader.

Eventually Samuel the Prophet anointed David, from the tribe of Judah to be King of all Israel. His son Solomon followed and ruled the Kingdom of Israel from Jerusalem where he had built the Holy Temple.

That was the last time the 12 Tribes were united under one King.

After Solomon, there was civil war and the Kingdom divided into two:

1. The Kingdom of Judea, in the south, with its capital in Jerusalem, led by Rehoboam (from the Tribe of Judah)

2. The Kingdom of Israel in the north, with its capital in Samaria led by Jeroboam (from the Tribe of Ephraim – Joseph)

Eventually the northern Kingdom was conquered by the Assyrians and exiled. Many members of the northern tribes fled south and returned to Judea.

The Reuniting of Joseph and Judah

Almost 3,000 years later, members of the Nation of Israel are back in Israel from backgrounds even more diverse than the time of the divided Kingdom.

Ethiopian Jews from the Tribe of Dan, Benei Menashe from India and others have joined the Sephardic and Ashkenaz Jews to live in the Land of Israel under one united government.

In the next few days Binyamin Netanyahu will be forming a government consisting of secular and Torah observant Jews from all backgrounds and tribes from Ephraim and Judah.

May it be a sign that soon we will all be united under the Kingship of the Mashiach from the Davidic Dynasty and Judah and Joseph will be truly united as one in the Land of Israel.

As it says in Ezekiel 37:19

“Thus said the Lord GOD: I am going to take the stick of Joseph—which is in the hand of Ephraim—and of the tribes of Israel associated with him, and I will place the stick of Judah upon itand make them into one stick; they shall be joined in My hand.”

With blessings from the Galilee!

Rabbi Shmuel Veffer
Founder, Galilee Green

Chanukah was a military victory… where’s the victory parade?

Anyone I have every spoken to who was in Israel at the time of the 1967 Six Day War told me that when it ended, the whole country was buzzing with the huge Miracle that had occurred.

Even secular newspapers didn’t shy away from using the “M” word (miracle).

The American Military could not believe what Israel had been able to accomplish.

As soon as the war was over, within days, everybody in the U.S. Army and Air Force wanted to come out to Tel Aviv and debrief and get the story on the war, which was seen by our people as just incredible. The tank tactics and the air tactics, our experts and intelligence people wanted to get in very early….

I went out with this Air Force team to one of the big Israeli Air Force bases. The commander gave a briefing and our guys asked a lot of questions. One of our guys said, “You just said you were getting six or seven sorties a day out of your aircraft. That’s impossible. We can’t do that.” (full article)

How Quickly they Forget

But it didn’t take long before people started explaining how well-trained the Israelis were and what cowards and incompetents the Arab soldiers were.

Today, the miracles have receded in the shadow of the incredible might of the IDF.

People will celebrate modern Israel’s victories by saying, “כֹּחִי וְעֹצֶם יָדִי” – ” My power and the strength of my hand” (Deut 8:17) achieved this result.

The Birkat Asher comments on this verse and says, “There is a very fine line between the joy you feel through false arrogance and the joy you feel through recognizing that God is the true source of your victory.”

Celebrate the Light

The primary miracle of Chanukah was the military victory of the Maccabees over the Greek Superpower.

Chanukah LightsBut the Jewish Sages understood that it would be very dangerous to focus on the military miracle and celebrate with a military parade honoring the brave Hasmonian warriors.

Instead, they placed our focus on the “small miracle” that occurred in the Temple when one small flask of oil lasted for eight days.

By doing that they are reminding us that the true source of our victory and our joy is God.

Now is the season to order your olive oil from Israel!

With blessings from the Galilee!

Rabbi Shmuel Veffer
Founder, Galilee Green

Chanukah – Bringing Light to the World

ShmuelThe Festival of Chanukah falls in the Hebrew month of Kislev. Shorter days and longer nights symbolize spiritual darkness and it’s our job to bring spiritual light back into the world during this season.

Two thousand two hundred years ago the Syrian Greeks controlled the Land of Israel and feared a national uprising by the Jews. Antiochus, the Syrian-Greek leader, attempted to force the Jews to assimilate into the Hellenistic Greek culture and thereby abandon their national identity. He did this by forbidding the Jews from learning Torah, circumcising their children and observing their calendar, all of which are the foundation of Jewish national identity. Then the Greeks desecrated the Temple in Jerusalem by forcing Jews to sacrifice pigs to pagan gods. Many Jews chose to assimilate, but a small group of the faithful, rose up in rebellion.

Priest lighting the Menorah

The High Priest lighting the Menorah in the Temple

Judah the Maccabee led the Jewish revolt against the Hellenist occupiers and eventually won a miraculous military victory with the Almighty’s help. After the final battle, the Maccabee’s came to Jerusalem to rededicate the The Temple to God (Chanukah literally means “dedication”).

During this process of re-dedication, they found a single sealed flask of pure extra-virgin olive oil which had been prepared specifically for the Menorah which needed to be constantly lit. Miraculously this single flask of oil which was enough for only one day, burned for eight days until new olive oil could be prepared.

Even though the greater miracle was the military victory over the Greeks, we do not celebrate Chanukah with a military parade. That might give us the impression that our physical ability helped us win the war. Instead the Rabbis taught us to light the Chanukah menorah for eight days, preferably with olive oil, to remind us and publicize the spiritual underpinnings of the battle. It is God’s light that sustains us and helps us to remove darkness from the world and defeat our enemies who try to extinguish the light of His Torah from the world.

Potato Latkes FlippingIn addition to lighting the Menorah, Jews around the world have the custom of preparing festive foods made with oil during Chanukah. In Israel, there are jelly-filled deep-fried donuts called sufganiot.

In Europe and most of the Ashkenazi communities the food of choice is Potato Latkes (pancakes). We invite you to use your Galilee Green Olive Oil to make your own latkes in the following recipe.

Kill us, or love us to death…

Detail from a mosaic from a public building in the mixed Jewish/Roman village of Tzipori (Sephorris). Roman and Greek culture was everywhere.

There have been two basic strategies to destroy the Jewish People throughout history.


The most obvious one is to go to war with us and physically kill us.. like Haman tried to do to us in Ancient Persia during the Purim story – and the modern day Persians (Iranians) are working diligently toward their goal of annihilation of Israel by nukes.

Last week, we visited Yad Vashem and saw how the Nazi’s tried to exterminate us.

Cattle Car used to transport Jews to the death camps on exhibit at Yad Vashem Jerusalem

Then we visited Ammunition Hill to remind ourselves how the Arabs tried to, and continue to try to destroy us by “pushing us into the sea.”


The second more subtle way is to eliminate us as a distinctive people by assimilating us into a “loving” host culture. The first biblical example of this occurs in this week’s Torah portion (VaYishlach) when Shechem’s father offers Jacob to merge with his family and become one nation through intermarriage. (Genesis 34:9-10)

The most famous example of this is the Chanukah story, where the occupying Greeks tried to assimilate the Jews into Greek culture and abandon their Judaism.

The Greeks under Alexander and later Ptolemy succeeded in Hellenizing a large portion of the Jewish Population who adopted Greek culture for economic and political reasons, going so far as building Gymnasia and reversing circumcisions so they could compete naked in the Greek games!


When Antiochus and the Seleucid Greeks took control, they went too far and began punishing Jews who refused to become Hellenized. This led to the revolt of the Maccabees who were the “ultra-orthodox, right-wing extremists” of their time.

Most think the Chanukah War was between the Jews and the Greeks, but in fact it was a civil war between the reformed, elite, assimilated Hellenist Jews and the Torah True Orthodox Jews of the countryside. It was a war to keep the Jewish People Jewish.


We are forming a new government in Israel. At the core is Netanyahu’s center-right Likud party. The remaining 5 coalition parties are all orthodox or ultra-orthodox… committed to traditional Torah values.

This has assimilated Jews, particularly the elite Jewish community in America in a panic, fearing they will have no shared values with the new Israeli government.

From a recent YNET article

“U.S. Jews fear collision with expected Israeli government
Given American Jews’ predominantly liberal political views, these misgivings could have a ripple effect in Washington and further widen what has become a partisan divide over support for Israel”


We celebrate Chanukah every year to remind us that no matter how powerful external forces are, if we stand strong to our Torah values and we are willing to fight with our lives for our unique relationship with God, then no power in the world can defeat us.

If we choose to be something we are not… then we are lost to history.

Shabbat Shalom!

Thank you so much for your support!

Esau: Give me some of the red stuff!


Esav (Esau) and Yaakov (Jacob) were twins. The first to be born was Esav, and he came out red (adom), and hairy all over, therefore they called his name Esav (Asui means fully formed). (Gen 26:25)

Later, when he grows up he will be given another name, Edom, (which means red). So we might think he was called “Red”, because he came out a redhead when he was born. But the Torah gives us a different reason for him being called “Red.”

Esav had been out hunting and returns home famished. Yaakov is cooking some red pottage (nazid). And Esav demands, “Give me some of that red stuff!”

And the verse continues, “…therefore they called his name “Red” – Edom (Gen 25:30). That’s a very strange reason to call him “Edom” for the rest of history.

Esau selling his birthright

Esau selling his birthright

And why does the above interaction about the pottage prompt Yaakov to ask Esav to sell his birthright; the birthright to carry on the mission of Avraham to bring God’s message to the world?

Rashi explains, that this was the day Avraham died, so he wouldn’t see Esav go on an evil path [instead of following Avraham’s ways]… and Yaakov was cooking a pot of red lentils, which was the traditional food given to a mourner [their father Yitzchak]. Why lentils? They are round and they signify the cycle of life [and the ultimate ressurrection of the dead, which comforts the mourners] which is why there is a custom to serve hard boiled eggs as well.

Esav only saw the “red,” which represented only the surface. He didn’t care or appreciate the underlying meaning of the meal. The death of Avraham and the continuity of his mission in the world.

Esav was supposed to be a co-leader,of the Jewish people. He would take care of the physical needs as King, and Yaakov would take care of the spiritual needs as teacher and priest. By only caring about the “red,” Esav was indicating to Yaakov that his truee essence had no interest in the spiritual world. Yaakov understood that he would have to take on both roles to carry on “the family business” and asked Esav to sell off his “share” of the business. (Incidentally that is why later on Yaakov would take on a second name Yisrael which represented his role as physical leader of the Jewish people, after he defeated the angel of Esav)

As a result of this story for the rest of history, Esav and his descendants will try to take back the birthright from Yaakov, so that Esav can control the land of Israel and create a kingdom based on physical might and hedonism devoid of spirituality.  Oh by the way, the Talmud and Midrash tell us that Edom is Rome as well as Rome’s spiritual descendants whose mission is to destroy Israel.

Shabbat Shalom!